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Like several other businesses, such as Bobbi Brown Beauty products, MAC is not really private. In 1994 Este Lauder acquired a majority equity interest in MAC and in 1997 and 1998 it acquired the balance. It is generally considered a great thing, because MAC right now has use of the research and data of several other high quality, large bankroll manufacturers, which enables MAC to generate its very own distinctive products without the enormous research and development expenses. MAC Merchandise Mac cosmetics certainly are a lady's fantasy -- changing a person, within just minutes, out of the girl-next-door right into a beauty queen. MAC features a complete assortment of make-up, skincare, hair care, in addition to quick solution goods available for you. The advantages of MAC products start with the skin. All the MAC goods are non-acnegenic and oil-free by makeup trade standards, indicating these products do not incorporate skin pore-blocking oils. MAC started out by offering makeup to men and women who were in exhibitions or on Television/motion picture sets. Their particular system had to remain in position irrespective of water, humidity as well as high temperature, and nevertheless appear terrific beneath arduous illumination circumstances. This specific experience is actually a big bonus for any average customer. For example, the Studio Fix Foundation presents far better coverage than liquid make up while not separating or perhaps evaporating through the day, still it is not bulky or putty-like. An additional very popular option is MAC's makeup removers. Many individuals notice that normal make-up removerscan be too mild, resulting in a lot of residues behind, or perhaps too harsh and dehydrate your skin. MAC's cleaning wipes eliminate all the make-up, dust, and grime, which includes eye cosmetics, without the need of upsetting the skin, follicles, or eyes. And additionally they leave sufficient non-oily moisturizing lotion to keep your skin soft. It doesn't make any difference in case you will need make up meant for work, dancing or perhaps theatrical functions, everybody who has used it consents that presently there is not anything else which holds up as long or functions as nicely in arduous situations as MAC goods. Why is MAC Great? One thing their slogan doesn't include is MAC's moral duties. MAC made an issue regarding recycling their items -- you actually be given a cost-free product every 6 reused canisters; along with assisting charitable groups, such as MAC's Aids medical studies. Within our own society it is easy for a corporation to become multinational, yet it happens to be very difficult for the exact same company to remain moral, and so for this I give credit to MAC. MAC's reputation and quality are so wonderful that they were selected to aid the 2004 Olympic Games by way of taking part in the beginning and closing events. MAC provided design and development, cosmetics artistry assistance and their own beauty offerings. Also MAC artists managed the makeup for several hundred major participants, a huge achievement. make up mac mac makeup stores make up mac Utilizes Particular areas associated with unusually higher skin tones for example moles as well as birthmarks might be depigmented to complement towards the encircling pores and skin. On the other hand, within instances associated with vitiligo, untouched pores and skin might be lightened to attain a far more standard look. Nevertheless, where these types of place remedy lotions are utilized within make an effort to lighten up the whole tone, all the present techniques are thought inadequate. Total pores and skin depigmentation is merely the useless procedure. One more software is actually vaginal or even anal bleaching, meant to slow up the usually more dark skin tones from the vaginal as well as perianal region. Background Within Asia, geisha had been (but still tend to be) recognized for his or her colored whitened pores and skin, that signifies elegance, sophistication, as well as higher interpersonal standing. Nevertheless, the actual skin-whitening items aren't utilized in this broad size within Asia these days. Geisha fresh paint their own pores and skin whitened within geisha-based events in order to commemorate their own lifestyle as well as history. These days, pores and skin whitening items can be found as lotions, tablets, cleansers or even creams. The actual system associated with long term whitening is generally through the break down associated with melanin through nutrients, for example which included in the excrement from the Japoneses rose bush warbler or even decreasing brokers for example hydroquinone. The majority of whitening lotions additionally have a UV prevent to avoid sunlight harm to your skin. Pores and skin whitening lotions (justness lotions) are utilized thoroughly within Indian as well as one of the Indian native diaspora overseas. Within Indian, these types of lotions tend to be promoted in the direction of just about all organizations through non-urban villagers in order to city experts. The actual lotions will also be offered through the relaxation associated with Asian countries, The african continent, Latina The united states and also the Center Eastern. The actual whitening lotion business is actually believed to become really worth close to $432 zillion within Indian as well as $7 million within The far east. Because of the growing pattern associated with focusing on man customers as well as endorsements through celebs for example Indian native acting professional Shahrukh Khan, product sales possess elevated for a price associated with 14% within non-European marketplaces in just the final 12 months. More information: Background associated with makeup Melanin as well as skin tones Unequal skin tones impacts many people, no matter cultural history or even skin tone. Pores and skin might possibly seem lighter in weight or even more dark compared to regular; there might be blotchy, unequal places, areas associated with dark brown in order to grey staining or even freckling. Pores and skin skin tones problems happen since the entire body creates possibly an excessive amount of or even not enough melanin. Melanin may be the pigment made by melanocyte tissue. It's brought on through a good enzyme known as tyrosinase, that produces the colour associated with pores and skin, eye, as well as locks tones. Melanin offers 2 main types which mix to produce different pores and skin shades. Eumelanin creates a variety of dark brown pores and skin as well as locks colour, whilst pheomelanin imparts the yellow-colored in order to red color. Melanin offers a few quantity of sunlight safety for that pores and skin through taking in ultraviolet gentle. More dark pores and skin colours tend to be much less vunerable to sunburn and also the general results associated with sunlight harm. Elevated melanin manufacturing also called hyperpigmentation is actually also known as melasma, chloasma or even photo voltaic lentigenes. Melasma is really a common phrase explaining darkening from the pores and skin. Chloasma is usually accustomed to explain pores and skin discolorations brought on by the body's hormones. These types of hormonal modifications are often caused by being pregnant, contraception tablets or even estrogen alternative treatment. Photo voltaic lentigenes may be the specialized phrase with regard to dim places about the pores and skin brought on by the sun's rays. Photo voltaic describes sunshine as well as lentigene explains the dim section of pores and skin. These types of places are very typical within grown ups having a lengthy background associated with unguaranteed sunlight publicity. Apart from sunlight publicity as well as the body's hormones, hyperpigmentation could be brought on by scare tissue, for example remains associated with imperfections, injuries or even rashes. This is also true for all those along with more dark pores and skin shades. The most frequent reason for dim regions of pores and skin, dark brown places or even regions of staining is actually unguaranteed sunlight publicity. As soon as improperly known as lean meats places, these types of pigment difficulties aren't associated with the actual lean meats. Upon lighter in weight in order to moderate pores and skin shades, photo voltaic lentigenes arise because small- in order to medium-sized dark brown areas associated with freckling that may develop as well as build up with time upon body parts which have the the majority of unguaranteed sunlight publicity, like the back again from the fingers, over arms, upper body, as well as encounter. For all those along with more dark pores and skin colours, these types of discolorations may seem because areas or even regions of ashen-gray pores and skin. Mixture remedies The majority of skin-lightening remedies, which could decrease or even prevent a few quantity of melanin manufacturing, tend to be targeted at suppressing tyrosinase. Numerous remedies make use of a mix of topical ointment creams or even gel that contains melanin-inhibiting elements and also a sunscreen, along with a doctor prescribed retinoid. Based on the way the pores and skin reacts in order to these types of remedies, exfoliants possibly as topical ointment aesthetic or even chemical substance peels as well as lasers can be utilized. Brand new improvement utilizing BROUGHT techniques tend to be displaying great results additionally Topical ointment remedies Topical ointment hydroquinone is recognized as through numerous skin doctors to become a less dangerous, likewise efficient (or even more therefore), as well as more affordable choice compared to lasers or even heavy peel off remedies. Topical ointment hydroquinone is available in 2% (obtainable in makeup) in order to 4% (or even more) levels (obtainable from the doctor or even through doctor prescribed), on it's own or even in conjunction with tretinoin 0. 05% in order to 0. 1%. Investigation indicates hydroquinone as well as tretinoin to become effective resources towards sun- or even hormone-induced melasma. Hydroquinone may be proven to trigger leukemia within rodents along with other creatures. Europe prohibited this through makeup within 2001, however it turns up within illegally copied lotions within the building globe. It's offered in the usa being an over-the-counter medication, however having a focus associated with hydroquinone not really going above two %. A few investigation indicates topical ointment azelaic acidity within 15% in order to 20% levels to become because effective because hydroquinone having a reduced danger associated with discomfort. Tretinoin alone has additionally already been proved to be helpful within dealing with hyperpigmentation associated with sun-damaged pores and skin. Kojic acidity, on it's own or even in conjunction with glycolic acidity or even hydroquinone, also offers proven great results because of its inhibitory motion upon tyrosinase (although kojic acidity has already established difficulties when it comes to balance as well as possible unwanted effects about the pores and skin and it is hardly ever utilized these days). A number of grow concentrated amounts as well as supplement D also provide a few investigation displaying all of them to work with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing. Niacinamide is actually stated to become a a lot less dangerous option whenever used topically with regard to pores and skin or even genitalia whitening. [citation needed] Based on the aesthetic organization, it's absolutely no undesirable side-effects as well as because acne breakouts decrease, additionally raises pores and skin dampness as well as decreases good facial lines. Mercury Numerous pores and skin whiteners include poisonous mercury for example mercury(II) chloride or even ammoniated mercury since the active component. Hydroquinone Within healthcare books, hydroquinone is the main topical ointment component with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing. It's elements possess powerful antioxidant capabilities. Hydroquinone is really a powerful inhibitor associated with melanin manufacturing, and therefore this helps prevent pores and skin through producing the actual material accountable for skin tone. Hydroquinone doesn't whiten your skin however lighten up, and may just interrupt the actual functionality as well as manufacturing associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. It's been prohibited in certain nations (at the. grams. Portugal) due to worries of the most cancers danger. A few issues regarding hydroquinone's security upon pores and skin happen to be indicated, however the investigation with regards to topical ointment software signifies damaging responses tend to be small or even a direct result utilizing very higher levels or even through additional skin-lightening brokers for example glucocorticoids or even mercury iodine. This really is especially accurate within The african continent exactly where adulterated pores and skin lightening items tend to be common. Due to hydroquinone's motion about the pores and skin, it may be irritant, especially within greater levels associated with 4% or even higher as well as naturally whenever coupled with tretinoin. A few medicines happen to be produced which mix 4% hydroquinone along with tretinoin as well as a kind of cortisone. The actual cortisone is roofed being an anti-inflammatory. The actual damaging side-effect associated with repetitive software associated with cortisone is actually countered through the good impact from the tretinoin in order that it doesn't trigger loss associated with pores and skin as well as harm to collagen. Hydroquinone is definitely an unpredictable component within aesthetic preparations. Whenever subjected to atmosphere or even sunshine it may change the unusual tone associated with dark brown. Consequently, when you're thinking about the hydroquinone item, this should be packed inside a non-transparent pot which reduces gentle as well as atmosphere publicity. Hydroquinone items packed within jars aren't suggested simply because they turn out to be inadequate soon after starting. Options in order to hydroquinone A number of option lighteners tend to be derivatives associated with hydroquinone. These people consist of Mitracarpus scaber draw out, Uva ursi (bearberry) draw out, Morus bombycis (mulberry), Morus alba (whitened mulberry), as well as Broussonetia papyrifera (document mulberry). Many of these include arbutin (officially referred to as hydroquinone-beta-D-glucoside), which could hinder melanin manufacturing. Real types of arbutin are thought stronger with regard to impacting pores and skin lightening (alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin, as well as deoxy-arbutin). Other available choices along with a few quantity of investigation concerning their own possible pores and skin lightening capabilities tend to be licorice draw out (particularly glabridin), azelaic acidity, as well as stable supplement D (L-ascorbic acidity, ascorbic acidity, as well as magnesium ascorbyl phosphate). There's also a little bit of investigation displaying dental dietary supplements associated with pomegranate draw out, ellagic acidity, e vitamin, as well as ferulic acidity may hinder melanin manufacturing. Arbutin Arbutin hails from the actual simply leaves associated with bearberry, cranberry, mulberry or even blueberry bushes, as well as exists in many kinds of pears. It may possess melanin-inhibiting qualities. Focus methods possess however to become set up with regard to arbutin, which means it's not recognized just how much arbutin it requires in order to lighten up pores and skin when it's put into the aesthetic formula. Furthermore, you will find patents managing it's make use of with regard to pores and skin lightening. Numerous makeup businesses make use of grow concentrated amounts which contain arbutin. There's small in order to absolutely no investigation displaying the actual grow draw out supply of arbutin because getting any kind of effect on pores and skin, particularly not really within the small quantities utilized in makeup. [citation needed] Tretinoin Investigation indicates which using tretinoin (also called all-trans retinoic acidity) may just end up being fairly efficient within dealing with pores and skin discolorations. Leader hydroxy acids Leader hydroxy acids (AHAs) mainly as lactic acidity as well as glycolic acidity would be the the majority of investigated types of AHAs simply because they possess a molecular dimension which allows efficient transmission to the best levels associated with pores and skin. It's usually thought which within as well as associated with on their own AHAs within levels associated with 4% in order to 15% aren't efficient with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing and can not really lighten up pores and skin discolorations for the reason that method. It's thought which their own advantage is within assisting cellular turnover prices as well as getting rid of harmful or even irregular levels associated with shallow pores and skin tissue (exfoliation) exactly where hyperpigmented tissue may build up. Nevertheless, additional investigation indicates which lactic as well as glycolic acids may certainly hinder melanin manufacturing individual using their measures being an exfoliant upon pores and skin. Such as laser light treatments, leader hydroxy acidity peels (utilizing 50% levels or even higher) might get rid of pores and skin discolorations. Merely a competent doctor ought to carry out these kinds of face peels. Kojic acidity Kojic acidity is really a by-product within the fermentation procedure for malting grain with regard to use within the actual production associated with benefit, japan grain wines. A few investigation exhibits kojic acidity to work with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing. Nevertheless, kojic acidity is definitely an unpredictable component within aesthetic preparations. On contact with atmosphere or even sunshine it may change dark brown as well as shed it's effectiveness. Numerous aesthetic businesses make use of kojic dipalmitate as a substitute since it is actually much more steady within preparations. Nevertheless, there isn't any investigation displaying kojic dipalmitate to become because efficient because kojic acidity, even though could it be a great antioxidant. Additional, a few questionable investigation offers advised which kojic acidity might have carcinogenic qualities within big dosages. Azelaic acidity Azelaic acidity is really a element of grains, for example whole wheat, rye, as well as barley. It's used topically inside a lotion formula in a 20% focus. Azelaic acidity can be used to deal with acne breakouts, however presently there is also investigation displaying this to work with regard to pores and skin discolorations. Additional investigation additionally signifies azelaic acidity might be a choice with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing. Supplement D Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, L-ascorbic acidity, ascorbyl glucosamine, as well as ascorbic acidity tend to be numerous types of supplement D regarded as steady as well as efficient antioxidants with regard to pores and skin. [citation needed] You will find not many research displaying these phones possess advantage with regard to suppressing melanin manufacturing. The actual levels of those elements utilized in assessments had been usually higher (a lot more than 5%), that is hardly ever utilized in aesthetic preparations.. Glutathione Glutathione is among the aspects of proteins. It's mainly a good antioxidant such as supplement D. Pores and skin whitening is really a side-effect of the. However it gets efficient within glutathione if your individual requires two -- four pills associated with glutathione following getting 1, 000 -- two, 000 mg associated with pills associated with supplement D that was used following a dinner. This really is exactly where pores and skin whitening gets additionally efficient within supplement D. Laser light treatments Each ablative as well as nonablative lasers might have the serious impact on melasma. Nevertheless, the outcomes aren't usually constant, as well as difficulties happen to be documented (for example hypo- or even hyperpigmentation). Laser light treatments of the type may lead to difficulties for all those along with more dark pores and skin shades. Cryosurgery An additional option to laser facial treatment is actually cryosurgery utilizing fluid nitrogen. Managed damage associated with pores and skin tissue leads to your skin in order to normally regenerate by itself. Extra melanin involves the top as well as peels away a few weeks. This really is especially helpful within delicate places such as the genitals exactly where laser facial treatment might depart the scar tissue. Effectiveness from the remedy depends upon the actual level from the pigment. Freckles in a the main entire body could be handled exactly the same method. [citation needed] Fruit Numerous fruit possess pores and skin whitening impact once they tend to be consumed or even scoured upon pores and skin. The key fresh fruit is actually papaya, where it's enzyme papain may lighten up your skin. Additional significant fruit tend to be " lemon ", lime scale, calamondin, as well as lemon; many of these possess Supplement D that is stated to possess a pores and skin whitening impact. [citation needed] Observe additionally Venetian Ceruse -- whitened guide dependent aesthetic put on through At the We associated with Britain. Sunlight suntanning Colonial attitude Hydroquinone Face Light (complexion) Teeth bleaching Whiteness within Japoneses lifestyle Referrals ^ Ntambwe, Malangu, Exactly why is pores and skin lightening used?, Technology within The african continent journal, Nationwide College associated with Open public Wellness in the Healthcare College associated with Southern The african continent, 03 2004 ^ India's color as well as weep more than paler pores and skin, Every day Telegraph, 1 Jul 2007 ^ Counter-top, Utes. Allen, Whitening pores and skin could be lethal, Birkenstock boston Planet, sixteen 12 , 2003 ^ Rashid, Aliya, The hurry in order to lotion the actual justness fetish, Dai ^ Tones associated with Distinction: The reason why Skin tone Issues. Stanford College Push. '09. pp. 177188. ISBN 0804759995. ^ Saikat Chatterjee (The fall of 12, '09). "Fair-Skin Style Increases Product sales associated with Whitening Lotions within India". Bloomberg.. Gathered 2009-12-10. ^ Cutis, July 2005, pp 19-23 ^ Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, Might 2006, additional, webpages 272-281; Dermatologic Surgical treatment, 03 2006, webpages 365-371; Diary associated with Medicines within Dermatology, September-October 2004, additional, 27-34; Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, Dec 2003, webpages 966-972; as well as Records associated with Dermatology, Dec 2002, webpages 1578-1582). ^ Dermatologic Surgical treatment, 03 2006, webpages 365-371. ^ The Eyesight associated with Light Elegance Bears Dangers with regard to Asia's Ladies -- Ny Occasions ^ Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, Might 2006, webpages S272-S281; Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, July 2004, webpages 604-607; and also the United states Diary associated with Medical Dermatology, September-October 2000, webpages 261-268). ^ Procter & Risk. "Skin lightening products" (PDF FILE).. ^ "Skin lightening products".. ^ Cutis, 03 2006, webpages 177-184; Diary associated with Medicines within Dermatology, September-October 2005, webpages 592-597; Diary associated with Aesthetic Technology, May-June 1998, webpages 208-290; Dermatological Surgical treatment, Might 1996, webpages 443-447. ^ Diary associated with Organic Items, The fall of 2002, webpages 1 605-1611. ^ Diary associated with Dermatological Technology, July, 2001, additional, webpages 68-75. ^ Uk Diary associated with Dermatology, 03 2003, webpages 493-500 as well as Crucial Evaluations within Toxicology, Might 1999, webpages 283-330. ^ Medicines within Dermatology, July-August 2004, webpages 377-381. ^ Fresh Dermatology, July 2005, webpages 601-608; Bioscience, Biotechnology, as well as Biochemistry and biology, Dec 2005, webpages 2368-2373; Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, July 2004, webpages 604-607; Diary associated with Medicines within Dermatology, July-August 2004, webpages 377-381; acial as well as Cosmetic surgery, Feb 2004, webpages 3-9; Dermatologic Surgical treatment, 03 2004, webpages 385-388; Diary associated with Bioscience as well as Bioengineering, 03 2005, webpages 272-276; Diary associated with Natural Biochemistry, The fall of 7, 2003, webpages 44320-44325; Diary associated with Farming as well as Meals Biochemistry, Feb 2003, webpages 1201-1207; Worldwide Diary associated with Aesthetic Technology, July 2000, webpages 291-303; as well as Anti-Cancer Investigation, September-October 1999, webpages 3769-3774). ^ The actual Diary associated with Pharmacology as well as Fresh Therapeutics, Feb 1996, webpages 765-769. ^ Dermatologic Surgical treatment, 03 2006, webpages 365-371; Acta Dermato-Venereologica, This summer 1999, webpages 305-310; Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, 04 1998, webpages 286-292; as well as Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, 03 1997, webpages S27-S36. ^ Fresh Dermatology, The month of january 2003, additional. webpages 43-50. ^ Dermatologic Surgical treatment, Feb 2005, webpages 149-154; Diary associated with Cutaneous Medication as well as Surgical treatment, 04 2004, webpages 97-102; Cutis, Feb 2004, additional, webpages 18-24; Dermatologic Treatment, 06 2004, webpages 196-205; as well as Dermatological Surgical treatment, 06 1999, webpages 450-454. ^ Records associated with Pharmacal Investigation, July 2001, webpages 307-311. ^ Mutation Investigation, Hereditary Toxicology as well as Environment Mutagenesis, 06 2005, webpages 133-1450 as well as Toxicological Sciences, Sept 2004, webpages 43-49. ^ Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, Dec 1991, webpages 893-895. ^ Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, Might 2006, additional, webpages 272-281. ^ Worldwide Diary associated with Dermatology, July 2004, web page 604; Dermatology, 04 2003, webpages 316-320; Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, The month of january 1996, webpages 29-33; ^ Diary from the United states Academy associated with Dermatology, Might 2006, additional, webpages 262-271; Dermatologic Treatment, The month of january 2001, web page fouthy-six; Diary associated with Aesthetic as well as Laser beam Treatment, 03 2005, webpages 39-43; Diary associated with Cutaneous Medication as well as Surgical treatment, 04 2004, webpages 97-102; Diary associated with Medicines within Dermatology, November-December 2005, webpages 770-774; Dermatologic Surgical treatment, Oct 2005, web page 1263; as well as Lasers within Surgical treatment as well as Medication, 04 2000, webpages 376-379. 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make up mac mac makeup stores make up mac Uses Specific zones of abnormally high pigmentation such as moles and birthmarks may be depigmented to match to the surrounding skin. Conversely, in cases of vitiligo, unaffected skin may be lightened to achieve a more uniform appearance. However, in cases where these spot treatment creams are used in attempt to lighten the entire complexion, all of the current methods are considered ineffective. Complete skin depigmentation is simply a futile process. An additional application is genital or anal bleaching, intended to reduce the typically darker pigmentation of the genital and perianal area. History In Japan, geisha were (and still are) known for their painted white skin, which represents beauty, grace, and high social status. However, the skin-whitening products are not used in such a wide scale in Japan today. Geisha paint their skin white in geisha-based ceremonies to celebrate their culture and background. Today, skin whitening products are available in the form of creams, pills, soaps or lotions. The mechanism of permanent whitening is usually by the breakdown of melanin by enzymes, such as that contained in the droppings of the Japanese bush warbler or reducing agents such as hydroquinone. Most whitening creams also contain a UV block to prevent sun damage to the skin. Skin whitening creams (fairness creams) are used extensively in India and among the Indian diaspora abroad. In India, these creams are marketed towards all groups from rural villagers to urban professionals. The creams are also sold throughout the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. The whitening cream industry is estimated to be worth around $432 million in India and $7 billion in China. Due to the increasing trend of targeting male consumers and endorsements by celebrities such as Indian actor Shahrukh Khan, sales have increased at a rate of 14% in non-European markets in only the last year. Further information: History of cosmetics Melanin and pigmentation Uneven pigmentation affects most people, regardless of ethnic background or skin color. Skin may either appear lighter or darker than normal; there may be blotchy, uneven areas, patches of brown to gray discoloration or freckling. Skin pigmentation disorders occur because the body produces either too much or too little melanin. Melanin is the pigment produced by melanocyte cells. It is triggered by an enzyme called tyrosinase, which creates the color of skin, eyes, and hair shades. Melanin has two major forms that combine to create varying skin tones. Eumelanin produces a range of brown skin and hair color, while pheomelanin imparts a yellow to reddish hue. Melanin provides some amount of sun protection for the skin by absorbing ultraviolet light. Darker skin colors are less susceptible to sunburn and the overall effects of sun damage. Increased melanin production also known as hyperpigmentation is often referred to as melasma, chloasma or solar lentigenes. Melasma is a general term describing darkening of the skin. Chloasma is generally used to describe skin discolorations caused by hormones. These hormonal changes are usually the result of pregnancy, birth control pills or estrogen replacement therapy. Solar lentigenes is the technical term for darkened spots on the skin caused by the sun. Solar refers to sunlight and lentigene describes a darkened area of skin. These spots are quite common in adults with a long history of unprotected sun exposure. Aside from sun exposure and hormones, hyperpigmentation can be caused by skin damage, such as remnants of blemishes, wounds or rashes. This is especially true for those with darker skin tones. The most typical cause of darkened areas of skin, brown spots or areas of discoloration is unprotected sun exposure. Once incorrectly referred to as liver spots, these pigment problems are not connected with the liver. On lighter to medium skin tones, solar lentigenes emerge as small- to medium-sized brown patches of freckling that can grow and accumulate over time on areas of the body that receive the most unprotected sun exposure, such as the back of the hands, forearms, chest, and face. For those with darker skin colors, these discolorations can appear as patches or areas of ashen-gray skin. Combination treatments Most skin-lightening treatments, which can reduce or block some amount of melanin production, are aimed at inhibiting tyrosinase. Many treatments use a combination of topical lotions or gels containing melanin-inhibiting ingredients along with a sunscreen, and a prescription retinoid. Depending on how the skin responds to these treatments, exfoliants either in the form of topical cosmetic or chemical peels and lasers may be used. New development using LED systems are showing good results also Topical treatments Topical hydroquinone is considered by many dermatologists to be a safer, similarly effective (if not more so), and less expensive option than lasers or deep peel treatments. Topical hydroquinone comes in 2% (available in cosmetics) to 4% (or more) concentrations (available from a physician or by prescription), alone or in combination with tretinoin 0. 05% to 0. 1%. Research has shown hydroquinone and tretinoin to be powerful tools against sun- or hormone-induced melasma. Hydroquinone has been shown to cause leukemia in mice and other animals. The european union banned it from cosmetics in 2001, but it shows up in bootleg creams in the developing world. It is sold in the united states as an over-the-counter drug, but with a concentration of hydroquinone not exceeding 2 percent. Some research has shown topical azelaic acid in 15% to 20% concentrations to be as efficacious as hydroquinone with a decreased risk of irritation. Tretinoin by itself has also been shown to be useful in treating hyperpigmentation of sun-damaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, also has shown good results due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase (though kojic acid has had problems in terms of stability and potential negative effects on the skin and is rarely used today). Several plant extracts and vitamin C also have some research showing them to be effective for inhibiting melanin production. Niacinamide is claimed to be a much safer alternative when applied topically for skin or genitalia whitening. [citation needed] According to a cosmetic company, it has no adverse side-effects and as well as acne reduction, also increases skin moisture and reduces fine wrinkles. Mercury Many skin whiteners contain toxic mercury such as mercury(II) chloride or ammoniated mercury as the active ingredient. Hydroquinone In medical literature, hydroquinone is considered the primary topical ingredient for inhibiting melanin production. Its components have potent antioxidant abilities. Hydroquinone is a strong inhibitor of melanin production, meaning that it prevents skin from making the substance responsible for skin color. Hydroquinone does not bleach the skin but lighten, and can only disrupt the synthesis and production of melanin hyperpigmentation. It has been banned in some countries (e. g. France) because of fears of a cancer risk. Some concerns about hydroquinone's safety on skin have been expressed, but the research when it comes to topical application indicates negative reactions are minor or a result of using extremely high concentrations or from other skin-lightening agents such as glucocorticoids or mercury iodine. This is particularly true in Africa where adulterated skin lightening products are commonplace. Because of hydroquinone's action on the skin, it can be irritant, particularly in higher concentrations of 4% or greater and predictably when combined with tretinoin. Some medications have been created that combine 4% hydroquinone with tretinoin and a form of cortisone. The cortisone is included as an anti-inflammatory. The negative side effect of repeated application of cortisone is countered by the positive effect of the tretinoin so that it does not cause thinning of skin and damage to collagen. Hydroquinone can be an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. When exposed to air or sunlight it can turn a strange shade of brown. Therefore, when you are considering a hydroquinone product, it must be packaged in a non-transparent container that minimizes light and air exposure. Hydroquinone products packaged in jars are not recommended because they become ineffective shortly after opening. Alternatives to hydroquinone Some of alternative lighteners are derivatives of hydroquinone. They include Mitracarpus scaber extract, Uva ursi (bearberry) extract, Morus bombycis (mulberry), Morus alba (white mulberry), and Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry). All of these contain arbutin (technically known as hydroquinone-beta-D-glucoside), which can inhibit melanin production. Pure forms of arbutin are considered more potent for affecting skin lightening (alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin, and deoxy-arbutin). Other options with some amount of research regarding their potential skin lightening abilities are licorice extract (specifically glabridin), azelaic acid, and stabilized vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate). There is also a small amount of research showing oral supplements of pomegranate extract, ellagic acid, vitamin e, and ferulic acid can inhibit melanin production. Arbutin Arbutin is derived from the leaves of bearberry, cranberry, mulberry or blueberry shrubs, and also is present in most types of pears. It can have melanin-inhibiting properties. Concentration protocols have yet to be established for arbutin, meaning it is not known how much arbutin it takes to lighten skin when it is added to a cosmetic formulation. Moreover, there are patents controlling its use for skin lightening. Many cosmetics companies use plant extracts that contain arbutin. There is little to no research showing the plant extract source of arbutin as having any impact on skin, especially not in the tiny amounts used in cosmetics. [citation needed] Tretinoin Research has shown that the use of tretinoin (also known as all-trans retinoic acid) can only be somewhat effective in treating skin discolorations. Alpha hydroxy acids Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) primarily in the form of lactic acid and glycolic acid are the most researched forms of AHAs because they have a molecular size that allows effective penetration into the top layers of skin. It is generally assumed that in and of themselves AHAs in concentrations of 4% to 15% are not effective for inhibiting melanin production and will not lighten skin discolorations in that manner. It is believed that their benefit is in helping cell turnover rates and removing unhealthy or abnormal layers of superficial skin cells (exfoliation) where hyperpigmented cells can accumulate. However, other research has shown that lactic and glycolic acids can indeed inhibit melanin production separate from their actions as an exfoliant on skin. Like laser treatments, alpha hydroxy acid peels (using 50% concentrations or greater) may remove skin discolorations. Only a qualified physician should perform these types of facial peels. Kojic acid Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacturing of sake, the japanese rice wine. Some research shows kojic acid to be effective for inhibiting melanin production. However, kojic acid is an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Upon exposure to air or sunlight it can turn brown and lose its efficacy. Many cosmetic companies use kojic dipalmitate as an alternative because it is more stable in formulations. However, there is no research showing kojic dipalmitate to be as effective as kojic acid, although is it a good antioxidant. Further, some controversial research has suggested that kojic acid may have carcinogenic properties in large doses. Azelaic acid Azelaic acid is a component of grains, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is applied topically in a cream formulation at a 20% concentration. Azelaic acid is used to treat acne, but there also is research showing it to be effective for skin discolorations. Other research also indicates azelaic acid may be an option for inhibiting melanin production. Vitamin C Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl glucosamine, and ascorbic acid are various forms of vitamin C considered stable and effective antioxidants for skin. [citation needed] There are very few studies showing them to have benefit for inhibiting melanin production. The concentrations of these ingredients used in tests were generally high (more than 5%), which is rarely used in cosmetic formulations.. Glutathione Glutathione is one of the components of amino acids. It is mostly an antioxidant like vitamin C. Skin whitening is a side effect of this. But it becomes effective in glutathione if a person takes 2 - 4 tablets of glutathione after taking 1, 000 - 2, 000 mg of tablets of vitamin C which was taken after a meal. This is where skin whitening becomes also effective in vitamin C. Laser treatments Both ablative and nonablative lasers can have a profound effect on melasma. However, the results are not always consistent, and problems have been reported (such as hypo- or hyperpigmentation). Laser treatments of this kind are more likely to result in problems for those with darker skin tones. Cryosurgery Another alternative to laser treatment is cryosurgery using liquid nitrogen. Controlled destruction of skin cells causes the skin to naturally regenerate itself. Excess melanin comes to the surface and peels off in a few days. This is particularly useful in sensitive areas like the genitals where laser treatment could leave a scar. Efficacy of the treatment depends on the depth of the pigment. Freckles in any part of the body can be treated the same way. [citation needed] Fruits Many fruits have skin whitening effect when they are eaten or scrubbed on skin. The leading fruit is papaya, wherein its enzyme papain can lighten the skin. Other notable fruits are lemon, lime, calamondin, and orange; all of these have Vitamin C which is said to have a skin whitening effect. [citation needed] See also Venetian Ceruse - white lead based cosmetic worn by Elizabeth I of England. Sun tanning Colonial mentality Hydroquinone Facial Pale (skin tone) Tooth bleaching Whiteness in Japanese culture References ^ Ntambwe, Malangu, Why is skin lightening practiced?, Science in Africa magazine, National School of Public Health at the Medical University of South Africa, March 2004 ^ India's hue and cry over paler skin, Daily Telegraph, 1 Jul 2007 ^ Counter, S. Allen, Whitening skin can be deadly, Boston Globe, 16 Dec 2003 ^ Rashid, Aliya, A rush to cream the fairness fetish, Dai ^ Shades of Difference: Why Skin color Matters. Stanford University Press. 2009. pp. 177188. ISBN 0804759995. ^ Saikat Chatterjee (November 12, 2009). "Fair-Skin Fashion Boosts Sales of Whitening Creams in India". Bloomberg.. Retrieved 2009-12-10. ^ Cutis, August 2005, pp 19-23 ^ Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, May 2006, supplemental, pages 272-281; Dermatologic Surgery, March 2006, pages 365-371; Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, September-October 2004, supplemental, 27-34; International Journal of Dermatology, December 2003, pages 966-972; and Archives of Dermatology, December 2002, pages 1578-1582). ^ Dermatologic Surgery, March 2006, pages 365-371. ^ A Vision of Pale Beauty Carries Risks for Asia's Women - New york Times ^ Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, May 2006, pages S272-S281; International Journal of Dermatology, August 2004, pages 604-607; and the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, September-October 2000, pages 261-268). ^ Procter & Gamble. "Skin lightening products" (PDF).. ^ "Skin lightening products".. ^ Cutis, March 2006, pages 177-184; Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, September-October 2005, pages 592-597; Journal of Cosmetic Science, May-June 1998, pages 208-290; Dermatological Surgery, May 1996, pages 443-447. ^ Journal of Natural Products, November 2002, pages 1 605-1611. ^ Journal of Dermatological Science, August, 2001, supplemental, pages 68-75. ^ British Journal of Dermatology, March 2003, pages 493-500 and Critical Reviews in Toxicology, May 1999, pages 283-330. ^ Drugs in Dermatology, July-August 2004, pages 377-381. ^ Experimental Dermatology, August 2005, pages 601-608; Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, December 2005, pages 2368-2373; International Journal of Dermatology, August 2004, pages 604-607; Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, July-August 2004, pages 377-381; acial and Plastic surgery, February 2004, pages 3-9; Dermatologic Surgery, March 2004, pages 385-388; Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, March 2005, pages 272-276; Journal of Biological Chemistry, November 7, 2003, pages 44320-44325; Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, February 2003, pages 1201-1207; International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2000, pages 291-303; and Anti-Cancer Research, September-October 1999, pages 3769-3774). ^ The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, February 1996, pages 765-769. ^ Dermatologic Surgery, March 2006, pages 365-371; Acta Dermato-Venereologica, July 1999, pages 305-310; International Journal of Dermatology, April 1998, pages 286-292; and Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, March 1997, pages S27-S36. ^ Experimental Dermatology, January 2003, supplemental. pages 43-50. ^ Dermatologic Surgery, February 2005, pages 149-154; Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, April 2004, pages 97-102; Cutis, February 2004, supplemental, pages 18-24; Dermatologic Therapy, June 2004, pages 196-205; and Dermatological Surgery, June 1999, pages 450-454. ^ Archives of Pharmacal Research, August 2001, pages 307-311. ^ Mutation Research, Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, June 2005, pages 133-1450 and Toxicological Sciences, September 2004, pages 43-49. ^ International Journal of Dermatology, December 1991, pages 893-895. ^ Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, May 2006, supplemental, pages 272-281. ^ International Journal of Dermatology, August 2004, page 604; Dermatology, April 2003, pages 316-320; Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, January 1996, pages 29-33; ^ Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, May 2006, supplemental, pages 262-271; Dermatologic Therapy, January 2001, page 46; Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, March 2005, pages 39-43; Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, April 2004, pages 97-102; Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, November-December 2005, pages 770-774; Dermatologic Surgery, October 2005, page 1263; and Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, April 2000, pages 376-379. 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